A written statement of facts made on oath and signed in the presence of an authorised person (e.g. solicitor). Used as evidence.
The deliberate use of unlawful force on somebody, ranging from just touching them to the use of physical violence. But such force may be lawful as, for instance, where it's authorised by agreement (medical treatment or sport) or in self defence.
You may have a beneficial interest in a property that is owned by your partner if you have made either direct financial contributions to the property or, in specific and limited circumstances, indirect contributions (e.g. payments towards household expenditure). In England & Wales, if you believe that you have an interest in a property that isn't properly reflected in the legal ownership, you can apply to the court for a ‘declaration’, which is a form of court order, as to the size of your beneficial interest in a property.
People who own property jointly in equal shares. If one dies, their share passes to the others by survivorship. In other words, no matter what their Will might say, the deceased's share will go to the surviving tenant(s). To avoid that result, the joint tenancy can be severed; see Severance of a Joint Tenancy.
Persons who own property jointly but not necessarily in equal shares. If one dies, their share passes to their heirs.
Benefit paid to those caring for children who are either (1) under 16 years old; or (2) between 16 and 19 years old and in full-time study; or (3) aged 16 or 17 years old and have left school recently, and have registered for work or training with the Careers Service or Connexions Service.
Child Tax Credit is available to those looking after one or more qualifying young people. A qualifying young person is (1) any child until 1 September following their 16th birthday; or (2) a young person older than 16 but under 19 who is in full-time education, or has left full-time education but doesn't have a job or training place and has registered with the Careers Service, or isn't claiming Income Support or tax credits in their own right, or isn't serving a custodial sentence of four months or more which has been imposed by the court. Child Tax Credit is made up of different elements and the amount received will depend on each individual's circumstances, including income.
A same-sex relationship registered under the Civil Partnership Act 2004. The Civil Partnership Act 2004 places same-sex couples on a similar footing before the law as those who are married in that they have similar rights to married couples, both during their relationship and on death or separation.
Under family law, the definition is ‘two persons who, although not married to each other, are living together as husband and wife or (if of the same sex) in an equivalent relationship’.
An agreement drawn up by unmarried couples dealing with the financial structure of their relationship and recording the financial obligations they wish to have towards each other in order to avoid dispute. Issues include: (1) who will pay the bills; (2) how home repairs and improvements will be funded; (3) how the joint accounts and credit cards will be operated; (4) what will happen to the property and assets after death; (5) who is responsible for any school fees; and (6) how your possessions will be divided. For a solicitor-approved cohabitation agreement, get our cohabitation agreement download.
A dated legal term relating to those who live together which gives unmarried couples a false sense of security. ‘Common law marriage’ isn't protected in law and there are no such people as ‘common law wives’ and ‘common law husbands’. Despite the fact that it's frequently referred to in the press, it plays no part in the law of England & Wales. Until recently in Scotland, there was a form of common law marriage called ‘marriage by cohabitation with habit and repute’. The theory behind this law was that if a man and woman cohabited as husband and wife in Scotland for sufficient time and were generally held and reputed to be husband and wife and were free to marry each other, they would be presumed to have consented to marry each other and if this presumption was not overturned, they would be considered to be legally married. This form of common law marriage has now been abolished by the Family Law (Scotland) Act 2006.
‘Contact’ is the legal term now used instead of the old ‘access order’. It's used to refer to the time when the parent who doesn't have the day-to-day care of the children can see them. It's usual for parents to agree on the arrangements for contact between them but if they cannot, a court may make an order for contact. Contact can include overnight (also known as ‘staying’) contact or even supervised contact where it's appropriate that the child should not be left alone with a particular parent. In England & Wales, certain third parties (e.g. grandparents and step-parents) can also apply for contact with a child, although, in the first instance, they have to ask permission for ‘leave’ of the court to bring their application. Such permission is usually granted. In Scotland, third parties don’t need the permission or ‘leave’ of the court.
The process of dissolving a civil partnership. Cannot be started until at least one year has passed since the registration took place. (Note: this one-year period doesn't apply in Scotland.)
a. The value remaining after all prior claims on an asset have been met. Hence the value of a house less the amount currently outstanding on the mortgage (known as the 'equity of redemption'). Or the value of the shareholders' interest in a company. b. The system of law developed from the 16th century in the Court of Chancery alongside the Common law. The two systems were merged long ago but some aspects survive, notably the distinction between the legal estate (common law ownership) and equitable estate (beneficial ownership) in property. Although the equitable owner is entitled to all the benefits derived from the ownership, it is generally the legal owner who has to execute any documents and be named as a party in court actions.
See Occupation order.
A person with legal control of, and responsibility for, a child.
A court order in Scotland preventing a partner or former partner being violent or abusive, such as threatening behaviour or assault. An interdict can also ban a partner/ex-partner from coming near your home, work or your child’s school or from phoning you.
See Beneficial Joint Tenants.
An agreement drawn up by unmarried couples recording any moral or lifestyle issues that are non-legal, so that each party is clear as to what is expected of them from the outset and to avoid later potential disputes. Matters dealt with in a living together agreement can include, for example: (1) who is responsible for cooking and cleaning; (2) how will the children be brought up; (3) what religious upbringing or type of schooling the children will have; (4) who will the couple turn to in the event of relationship difficulties (e.g. to Relate, the relationship counselling service, or to a faith).
In England & Wales, a court order preventing someone from being violent or abusive to their partner (or ex-partner) or from harassing them. The definition of molestation is wide and it includes such actions as following somebody, telephoning them repeatedly and sending notes through their door, etc. Both opposite-sex and same-sex couples are entitled to obtain non-molestation orders.
A court order excluding a person from the family home. Occupations orders are usually only granted by the court where there is evidence of violence or psychological harm, either to the parties or to their children if they remain living under the same roof. Occupation orders are usually granted for short periods only (often between three and six months), although they can be extended by the court. Known as an 'exclusion order' in Scotland.
In Scotland, a court order stopping your partner from selling the property (if they own the property and you don't). This can be used in only very limited circumstances and can only be granted for an initial period of up to six months. It can only be extended for a further six months, so the maximum period you could obtain an order for occupancy rights would be for one year.
In England & Wales, a court order obtained by an unmarried couple who is splitting up which arranges for the property in which the partners have an interest to be sold, or to prevent one partner from forcing a sale. A court can also order that either of the parties can be prevented from occupying the property and it can even order that the person who has remained in the property pays compensation (sometimes called ‘occupational rent’) to the party who is excluded from it.
See Parental responsibility agreement.
Family law describes parental responsibility as giving parents all the ‘rights, duties, powers, responsibilities and authority which by law a parent has in relation to a child and his property’. The practical effect of parental responsibility is that where two parents have parental responsibility, one parent cannot make decisions about the child without the other parent’s agreeing the matter with them. The types of issue that are covered by parental responsibility are major (as opposed to day-to-day) issues regarding a child, such as their education, religious instruction and medical care.
A legal document signed by both parents of a child when they are unmarried to give parental responsibility to the father for a child born before 1 December 2003. Only the natural parents can sign a parental responsibility agreement. Known as a 'parental responsibilities and parental rights agreement' in Scotland.
A court order to give a father parental responsibility. If you are in agreement that both of you should hold parental responsibility, the best and simplest way of dealing with this is to sign a parental responsibility agreement.
All property other than real property. Personal property, or personalty, is contrasted with interests in land, or realty, for historical reasons but there are still important differences, for example in the way they can be transferred.
See Prenuptial agreement.
A prenuptial agreement (or premarital agreement), commonly abbreviated to 'prenup', is a legal contract entered into prior to marriage or a civil partnership stating the legal claims each party has on each other's estate should the couple subsequently divorce.
A prohibited steps order can be applied for if it's necessary to obtain an order to prevent something happening in relation to the child (e.g. to prevent them from having contact with an undesirable person or to stop a parent from taking them to a particular place or sending them to a particular school).
See Trust deed.
‘Residence order’ is the name now used which has replaced the old ‘custody order’ and is the type of order that a court will make when it's necessary for the court to decide where a child should live. A residence order can be made in favour of one parent or in favour of both parents (then known as a ‘joint residence order’). Joint residence orders used to be relatively rare because the courts considered that a child would benefit from having one main base, but their popularity is on the increase. If a residence order is made in your favour, you automatically gain parental responsibility.
A court order preventing someone from doing something (usually assault).
A court will make a specific issue order for any other issue relating to a child that isn't covered by residence, contact or prohibited steps orders. Specific issue orders are usually orders made by a court when it's asked to make a decision about an important aspect of the child’s life (e.g. a particular school a child should attend). One situation in which this kind of order may be needed would be if you wish to take your child to live in another country.
In Scotland, this is a way of holding property so that, when one of the joint owners dies, their share passes automatically to the others. See Beneficial Joint Tenants.
The joint beneficial ownership of property in specified (not necessarily equal) shares. If one tenant in common dies, their share passes according to the wishes of the deceased’s Will or the law of intestacy, as appropriate. Their share will not automatically go to their life partner. Although called a tenancy, this has nothing to do with leases.
In England and Wales, an agreement drawn up by unmarried couples dealing with the ownership of the property. The usual issues dealt with in a trust deed are:
Known as a 'registered minute of agreement' in Scotland.
Available to those in paid work (either employed or self-employed) who expect to be working for at least four weeks. To qualify, you need to be (1) aged 16 or over, usually working 16 hours or more per week and either you are looking after at least one child or you are disabled; (2) aged 25 or over and usually working at least 30 hours per week; or (3) aged 50 or over and starting work after receiving certain benefits for at least 6 months and usually working at least 16 hours per week. Working Tax Credit is made up of various elements and the amount you receive will depend on your circumstances. Relevant factors include not only the amount you earn, but also the amount of hours you work per week (the tax credit usually increases if you work more than 30 hours per week), the fact that you are a lone parent and any amounts you spend on registered or approved childcare.